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The beginning of Western architecture in Japan 2


With the modernization of the politics economy, new buildings such as banks and companies as commercial buildings from government buildings and school buildings became the leading part, and a number of buildings exceeding those of shrine and temple buildings were constructed.

Although foreigners could not afford to go to private houses and local architecture, buildings imitating Western architecture were constructed by locally aspiring architects.

It was a Japanese-Western blend of wood, plaster, and the like using the hearts and traditional techniques of Japanese people.

These modes are also called pseudo-Western architectures.

The architectural hotel at the end of the Edo period, the first national bank at the beginning of the Meiji period, Mitsui-gumi, and others were typical examples of pseudo-Western-style buildings, and the buildings of the local government office were constructed one after another with pseudo-Western-style buildings.

This trend was observed until around 1890.

Later, the central government offices of the Meiji government requested full-scale western-style architecture. Architects are invited from the West to ask them to design major buildings, such as parliamentary halls. In 1880, Condor, who came to Japan, trained Japanese architects who would lead the next generation as lecturers in the Department of Architecture, the College of Engineering.

On the other hand, at the request of the government, he designed the Rokumei-kan Museum and the Imperial Household Museum, and also worked on the Nicholas-do Hall, from the Iwasaki residence to the Navy Ministry, and constructed a number of legitimate Western-style architectures in Japan.

If Japan is a country of wood culture, Europe is a country of stone and brick.

The classical style was established in the ancient times of Greece and Rome, the Gothic style flourished in the medieval period, and the classics were restored in the Renaissance in the early modern period.

The nineteenth century fluctuated with classicism, romanticism and eclecticism, but its history was learned in a short period by the Japanese.

In the 1880s, the disciples of Condor began to play an active role as the center of the Japanese architectural world.

The head office of the Bank of Japan, the Akasaka Imperial Villa (State Guest House) and Tokyo Station remain today.

The effect of civilization and westerly wind was also observed in the housing construction. There was a combination of Wakan and Yokan in the residence of the high officer, and in the middle-class residence, only a part of the residence was installed in the western part.

In addition, fittings fitted with glass came to be used instead of paper shoji.

The lighting in the room is changed from petroleum lamps and gas lamps to electric lamps.

On the other hand, the damage of large earthquake was academically pursued, and the earthquake resistant structure advanced.

The industrial revolution in Japan, which began with the construction of the Western-style factory, has progressed rapidly, and the results will be the foundation of the age when the architectural world will come next by ensuring the domestic production of iron, glass, and cement. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 was a great test for Meiji architecture.

In other words, the construction of brick stone construction and the traditional soil construction were severely damaged. Since then, they will give up their seats for the modern construction of reinforced concrete and steel structures that replaced them.

That is to say, the study and practice of Western architecture of bricks and stones, both in quantity and quality with a long history, 1912 (end of Meiji-period), and this became a springboard for the development of modern architecture in Japan.